In the literature: December highlights

Click here to read some interesting recently published papers from our community. If you have published an article in the field of in silico medicine, send it to us: we will include it in this section of the newsletter!

Cambridge University Press: "The Use and Ethics of Digital Twins in Medicine"

Jeffrey David Iqbal et al

Abstract

Digital Health Technologies (DHTs) are currently the subject of much debate both in terms of their technological frontiers as well as their ethical, legal and societal implications (ELSI). Regulation of such technologies as medical devices currently lacks behind their level of adoption. Digital Twins are the next evolution step of such DHTs and provide an opportunity to anticipate and act on ELSI before adoption again leaps before the necessary review. This paper introduces the concept and use cases of digital twins in medicine, then frames the debate through the lens of related technologies, machine learning and personalized medicine, and maps ethical challenges stemming from those. Finally, we lay out how digital twins may change and challenge the future practice of medicine.

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BMC Biology: "An integrated in silico-in vitro approach for identifying therapeutic targets against osteoarthritis"

Raphaƫlle Lesage et al

Abstract

Without the availability of disease-modifying drugs, there is an unmet therapeutic need for osteoarthritic patients. During osteoarthritis, the homeostasis of articular chondrocytes is dysregulated and a phenotypical transition called hypertrophy occurs, leading to cartilage degeneration. Targeting this phenotypic transition has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy. Chondrocyte phenotype maintenance and switch are controlled by an intricate network of intracellular factors, each influenced by a myriad of feedback mechanisms, making it challenging to intuitively predict treatment outcomes, while in silico modeling can help unravel that complexity. In this study, we aim to develop a virtual articular chondrocyte to guide experiments in order to rationalize the identification of potential drug targets via screening of combination therapies through computational modeling and simulations.

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CPY Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology: "Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling to support bioequivalence and approval of generic products: A case for diclofenac sodium topical gel, 1%"

Eleftheria Tsakalozou et al

Abstract

Establishing bioequivalence (BE) for dermatological drug products by conducting comparative clinical end point studies can be costly and the studies may not be sufficiently sensitive to detect certain formulation differences. Quantitative methods and modeling, such as physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling, can support alternative BE approaches with reduced or no human testing. To enable PBPK modeling for regulatory decision making, models should be sufficiently verified and validated (V&V) for the intended purpose. This report illustrates the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of a generic diclofenac sodium topical gel that was based on a totality of evidence, including qualitative and quantitative sameness and physical and structural similarity to the reference product, an in vivo BE study with PK end points, and, more importantly, for the purposes of this report, a virtual BE assessment leveraging dermal PBPK modeling and simulation instead of a comparative clinical end point study in patients. The modeling approach characterized the relationship between systemic (plasma) and local (skin and synovial fluid) diclofenac exposure and demonstrated BE between the generic and reference products at the presumed site of action. Based on the fit-for-purpose modeling principle, the V&V process involved assessing observed data of diclofenac concentrations in skin tissues and plasma, and the overall performance of the modeling platform for relevant products. Using this case as an example, this report provides current scientific considerations on good practices for model V&V and the establishment of BE for dermatological drug products when leveraging PBPK modeling and simulation for regulatory decision making.

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Comput Methods Programs Biomed: "In silico thrombectomy trials for acute ischemic stroke"

Claire Miller et al

Abstract

In silico trials aim to speed up the introduction of new devices in clinical practice by testing device design and performance in different patient scenarios and improving patient stratification for optimizing clinical trials. In this paper, we demonstrate an in silico trial framework for thrombectomy treatment of acute ischemic stroke and apply this framework to compare treatment outcomes in different subpopulations and with different thrombectomy stent-retriever devices. We employ a novel surrogate thrombectomy model to evaluate the thrombectomy success in the in silico trial.

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Date: 19/12/2022 | Tag: | News: 1404 of 1414
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